Ms. D came to Canada in 1989 and applied for refugee status. She was given a permit to work and a temporary Social Insurance Number, but was later denied landed status in September 2010. This meant Ms. D lost the ability to work and was not eligible for Employment Insurance. She appealed the decision, but in the meantime, Ms. D was unable to work and needing money. She went to the Toronto Employment and Social Services (TESS) office, where she told by staff that she needed to apply by telephone.